Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of 1973 (CITES)
CITES was a created after a 1963 meeting of the IUCN (The World Conservation Union)
Appendex 1 and 2 were created on April 16, 1993
Appendex 3 was created on June 11, 1992
The treaty was in effect on July 1, 1975 and amended in 1979 and 1983.

What is the Legislation:
This is a international legislation

What CITES is:
The goal for CITES is to monitor the trade of animals and plants that are endangered, or to make sure they don't go endangered. If a person does want to import or export in certain plants and animals they need to get a permit from CITES. This way it can be insured that certain animal and plant species won't become extinct or endangered. Countries that are under this treaty work together to make sure that any plants or animal species that are endangered won't become extinct from imports, exports, or re-exports.

Why CITES was needed:
CITES was formed in the 1960s when the idea of regulating trade internationally was a new idea. Every year, millions of plants and animals are worth billions of dollars and include a wide variety of plants and animals. Some animals are at risk for exploitation because the demand for trade is high, the loss of their habitat, and other factors. This could wipe out species and cause problems in the future. This treaty was created to ensure that all the species of plants and animals will remain around for the future. Since the trade goes all over the world, the treaty was made international, where every party in the agreement helps to regulate trade.

How CITES works:
CITES established a system of laws and controls over the international trade of threatened plant and wildlife. The actual species themselves as well as products, like clothing, medicine, and souvenirs are made from the species and regulated and often restricted. Under the system, governments and Parties issue permits authorizing the exporting and importing of plants and wildlife among other countries. The CITES classify plants and wildlife into three different categories, based on their level of protection.
Appendix I: This includes species that are threatened with extinction that may be affected by trade. These species may not be traded internationally for primary commercial purposes. Some species may be exported and imported for non-commercial purposes. There are 800 species in the category. ex. red panda, gorilla, tigers, cheetah, african elephant, some cacti, some orchids
Appendix II: These species are not exactly threatened with extinction from trade, but may become threatened unless trade is regulated. International commerce trade is allowed with these species but is heavily controlled. In order to export the species, a permit is needed. There are 32,500 species in this category. ex. american black bears, african grey parrot, green iguana, bigleaf mahogany
Appendix III: These species are identified as being subject to regulation of exploitation. Parties are allowed to regulate and manage trade of the species.; In this category there are 170 species. ex. two-toed sloth, alligator snapping turtle, Spanish cedar
Participating countries in CITES are responsible for composing and enforcing their own laws. The Department of the Interior’s U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for overseeing all aspects of CITES within the United States.The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) enforces he provisions of CITES related to plants. Each country involved with CITES is doing all they can in order to protect the species being harmed on earth.

What is the Impact of CITES:
When new plants come into a country, CITES is in charge of inspecting animals and plants being brought into that country. In 2005, 1.5 billion plants were inspected and over 50 million of them were considered endangered species. CITES has made a huge impact on reintroducing animals back into the wilderness and maintaining their already low population. The impact of CITES can be seen through these improvements of animal/plant population:
*Giant panda
*Asian Big Cats
*European Eel
*Hawaiian Monk Seals
*Tigers-Hunted for their paws and fur
*Asian Elephants-used for their ivory or captured for supplement work or tourism use. The Asian elephants were saved by conservation of land, improving the care of captive elephants and training the elephant handlers
*Golden Lion Tamarins-Improved by habitat restoration and reintroducing the captive born individuals back into the forest
*Cheetahs-Trying to improve the population by inseminating cheetahs in zoos to improve population, improving the breeding and managing of cheetahs in zoos, and developing an understanding between reproduction and cheetah age
*Black-footed ferrets-The Black-Footed Ferrett Recovery Plan emphasizes breeding programs, assisted breeding, and establishing reintroducing sites.

Who is the Agency/Group that enforces CITES:
US Fishing Wildlife Service Environmental Agency is the agency that is responsible for regulation and enforcement in the United States.

Works Cited "CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (1973)." Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center. Center for International Earth Science Information Network , n.d. Web. 5 Feb. 2010. <>.
"Endangered Species Science - National Zoo."
Welcome to the National Zoo. Smithsonian National Zoological Park, n.d. Web. 5 Feb. 2010. <>.
"Environment - CITES - home."
EUROPA - European Commission - Homepage. N.p., 20 Nov. 2008. Web. 5 Feb. 2010. <>.
"The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)."
Animal and Plant Health Insepection Service. N.p., 6 Mar. 2006. Web. 5 Feb. 2010. <>.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Home.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2 Nov. 2009. Web. 5 Feb. 2010. <>.

"Welcome to CITES." Welcome to CITES .
N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Feb. 2010. <>.